The Andzhijans

The Andzhijans (pronounced [ʌnd͡ʒ’ijənz] or [‘anʒjənz]) (Andzhijan: Ъndжista, Andzhista, [ɤnd͡ʒ’iʃtɐ], also spelled Ънджийчиtе, Ανγιση, Andжijani, and Ăngițile. Reich spellings: Ænġista, Angista — dated exonym: Vrans, Vrani) are a Balkan ethnic group composed of the roughly two million citizens of the Macedonian Republic of Andzija, an additional three million people living in enclaves in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Serbia, and Romania [dubious – discuss], and a diaspora of several thousand in Germany, England, and Canada. They speak the Andzhijan language, a Germanic language most closely related to Frisian, Scots [1], and English [dubious – discuss], heavily influenced by Slavic languages [2] in particular and the Balkan Sprachbund in general [3]. Most Andzhijans are members of the Andzhijan Orthodox Church [4], with a large minority [how many?] of Sunni Muslims [citation needed].


The oldest records referencing the Andzhijans (transcribed by Byzantine missionaries) claim they “rode here on a wind storm commanded by Saint Andrew,” [5] however most historians agree that they are descendants of XI century Anglo-Saxon-speaking peoples who worked in the Varangian Guard [6] and raided as Vikings [7] in the Northern Aegean. Many believe they also absorbed Old English speakers during the IV Crusade [citation needed].


As a member of the Balkan Sprachbund, Andzhijan exhibits many grammatical features shared by Bulgarian, Albanian, Romanian, and to a lesser extent Greek and Turkish. These include:

Postpositioned definite articles and a simplified case system

ŭerθ (the man) on ŭerθъs (on, to, at, with, of the man) ŭere! (man!)

ŭersta (the men) on ŭersta (on the men) ŭerъs! (men!)

чenaθa (the woman) on чenaθъs (on the woman) чeno! (woman!)

чeniθ (the women) on чeniθ (on the women) чeni! (women!)

чilzъt (the child) чilzθъs (on the child) чil! (child!)

чilzda (the children) чilzda (on the children) чildъz! (children!)


The fusion of the genitive and the dative:

I gave the book to Maria= Яfz bokaθa on Mъra. (“Gave-I book-the on Maria”)

It is Maria’s book= Is on Mъra bokθa. (“Is on Maria book-the”)


The fusion of the locative and ablative

In Greece= to greka

Into Greece= to greka


A future marker formed from the verb “to want” (to ŭeeŭe)

Future=ŭil (negative: neŭol)


A present perfect tense formed with the verb “to have” (be) and the participle

I have promised=be vaцъn/a


The extinction of the infinitive

I want to write=Ŭee tu reцŭe

He wants to write= Ŭeθ tu reцъθ (“he wants to writes”)



Use of the “to verb” construction to mean, “should”

You should go= Tu dжest (“to go-you”)


Use of the reflexive pronoun to add emphasis

I see George = Шюe ш Dжurdж. (“See-I him George”)

I  see George = Шюe me Dжurdж (“See-I me George”)


Analytic comparatives and superlatives

The bigger book=Mar-grяθa boka (“More-great-the book”)


And many loan words including

diminutive=-iцe (from Slavic or Albanian)

Table= masa (from Latin)

Thunderbolt= romfя (from Greek)

Meadow= ivada (from Albanian)

Box= kuцa (from Greek)

Paint/dye= boя (from Turkish)

to ripen= tu bakŭe (a calque from Turkish)

whether or not= ŭilneŭol (a calque from Slavic)



Nom Acc Gen Dat/Reflexive

(I) mek (me) me (my) on men, me (on me, myself)

ŭe (we) oшk (us) ore (our)  on oren, os (on us, ourselves)

θo (you S.) θok (you) θor (your) on θon, θ(oθ) (on you, yourself)

e (you all) ik (you) яr (your) on яrn, ю (on you, yourselves)

i/it/я (he/it/she) ik/ik/яk (him/it/her) ir/ir/яr (his/its/hers) on im/on im/on яm, ш/ш/ш(oш) (on him/it/her, him/it/herself)

цe (they) цek (them) цer (their) on цem, ц(oц) (on them, themselves)


A simplified verb conjugation and tense system:

(shown here “to understand” and “to give”)

1 S pres: unzъrstan-ŭe, ef-ŭe  past: unzъrцin-z, яf-z

1 P pres: unzъrstan-me, ef-me past: unzъrцin-zme, яf-zme

2 S pres: unzъrstan-st, ef-st  past: unzъrцin, яf

2 P pres: unzъrstan-te, ef-te past: unzъrцin-ze, яf-ze

3 S pres: unzъrstan-ъθ, ef-ъθ past: unzъrцin-d, яf-d

3 P pres: unzъrstan-aθ , ef-aθe past: unzъrцin-aθ, яf-aθ


S vid юnzъrstu-en, vid ef-en

P vid ŭъs юnzъrstu-en, vid ŭъs ef-en


S unzъrstan, ef

P unzъrstan-aθ, ef-aθ


pres: unzъrstan-enz, ef-enz  past: юnzъrstu-en, ef-en


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